Sunday, January 6, 2013

Peak oil and secondary recovery

Because the Bakken Oil Field in North Dakota is in the same general neighborhood as the town (Tioga) I lived in for 18 months when I was in high school, and because Bakken is one of the epicenters of the practice of fracking, I feel compelled to be extra-careful about what I say on the subject.  I have had relatives in the oil business who probably think I am a Liberal Arts idiot anyway, so I have extra incentive to get this right.

But here's the basics.  Peak Oil explains that when an oil field peaks, there is still as much oil left in the ground as has been extracted.  But what has been extracted was the EASY half.  Getting the rest will probably be very problematic.  Getting the rest has inspired a host of "secondary" recovery techniques.  Many things have been been tried including steam injection (one cousin remarked that this proved to be a particularly bad idea noting, "you would be astonished how hard it is, and how much energy it takes, to change the temperature of the earth.")  But fracking seems to work after a fashion.  It's an environmental disaster that has produced flaming drinking water and man-made earthquakes, but it does produce recoverable fuels.

And so North Dakota is having an oil boom that rivals the original in the 1950's and 60s.  Keep in mind the original was pretty much a big boy game from the start.  The wells could be over 3 miles (5km) deep.  Such wells were very expensive to drill so there was serious need for sophisticated underground mapping techniques.  This is North Dakota—a place where getting outdoor work done in the winter is nearly impossible.  And even then the wells were not especially productive—a good well in western North Dakota produces in a month about as much crude as one of the superwells in Saudi Arabia or Iraq produce in a few hours.  This was a modest enterprise.  I lived in an oil town and except for the refinery and the little airport with a runway long enough for corporate jets, it was as unpretentious any other small town out on the high prairie.

Fracking is not a refutation of Peak Oil.  In fact, it proves it.  This is especially true of the economics.  Fracking is pretty expensive (it's astonishing how much it costs to rearrange the underlying geology of the earth) and because it is a secondary recovery technique, production drops off pretty rapidly.  Of course, none of this matters to the free marketeers with their 15-second time horizons who look at the current temporary glut of petroleum products and see a salvation for the fossil-fueled economy.  That inspires article like this.

The World Is Entering A 5-Year Period Of Abundant Oil

EconMatters | Dec. 30, 2012

EIA Inventory Data

In analyzing the last EIA report of the year it is noteworthy that gasoline stocks really rose the last 5 weeks of the year. The takeaway isn`t so much that gasoline inventories rose 23 million barrels the last 5 weeks of the year, wow that is some build in inventories, but the fact that Oil inventories barely budged at all during the process.

Seasonal issues regarding tax selling in order to move as much oil through the system to avoid higher tax liabilities is primarily responsible for the higher run rates of refineries, and thus the build in gasoline inventories, but that should result in large drawdowns of oil as there is a push and pull between products and the base commodity oil. Yet we end the year slightly above the 370 million barrel mark in US oil inventories.

This is actually very bearish for oil because with these gasoline builds refineries are not going to want to keep adding more gas to storage as part of the reason refiners have done so much better with their margins is by keeping low inventory levels in the products so you have what appears to be a tight market.

Well, we no longer have a tight market in gasoline, so no need to draw as much crude to produce the end product. We should start to experience some rather substantial builds over the next couple of months in crude oil as refiners request less base commodity, and lower their run rates.  more
Thankfully, this nonsense has some damn good answers.

Rosy Forecast of Cheap Oil Abundance, Economic Boom a Myth

31 December 2012 By Dr. Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed

Headlines about this year's "World Energy Outlook" (WEO) from the International Energy Agency (IEA), released mid-November, would lead you to think we are literally swimming in oil.

The report forecasts that the United States will outstrip Saudi Arabia as the world's largest oil producer by 2017, becoming "all but self-sufficient in net terms" in energy production - a notion reported almost verbatim by media agencies worldwide, from BBC News to Bloomberg. Going even further, Damien Carrington, head of environment at The Guardian, titled his blog: "IEA report reminds us peak oil idea has gone up in flames."

The IEA report's general conclusions have been backed up by several other reports this year. Exxon Mobil's 2013 Energy Outlook projects that demand for gas will grow by 65 percent through 2040, with 20 percent of worldwide production from North America, mostly from unconventional sources. The shale gas revolution will make the US a net exporter by 2025, it concludes. The US National Intelligence Council also predicts US energy independence by 2030.

This last summer saw a similar chorus of headlines around the release of a Harvard University report by Leonardo Maugeri, a former executive with the Italian oil major Eni SpA. "We were wrong on peak oil," read environmentalist George Monbiot's Guardian headline. "There's enough to fry us all." Monbiot's piece echoed a spate of earlier stories. In the preceding month, the BBC had asked "Shortages: Is 'Peak Oil' Idea Dead?" The Wall Street Journal pondered, "Has Peak Oil Peaked?" while the New York Time's leading environmental columnist Andrew Revkin took "A Fresh Look At Oil's Long Goodbye."

The gist of all this is that "peak oil" is now nothing but an irrelevant meme, out of touch with the data and soundly disproven by the now self-evident abundance of cheap unconventional oil and gas.

Burning our Bridges

On the one hand, it's true: There are more than enough fossil fuels in the ground to drive an accelerated rush to the most extreme scenarios of climate catastrophe.

The increasing shift from conventional to unconventional forms of oil and gas - tar sands, oil shale, and especially shale gas - heralds an unnerving acceleration of carbon emissions, rather than the deceleration promised by those who advocate shale as a clean 'bridge fuel' to renewables. According to the CO2 Scorecard Group, contrary to industry claims, shale gas "cannot be credited" with US emissions reductions over the last half decade. Nearly 90 percent of reductions were caused not by switching to shale gas, but by a "decline in petroleum use" linked to the "replacement" of coal "by wind, hydro and other renewables." To make matters worse, where natural gas saved 50 million tons of carbon by substituting for coal in electricity, increased gas use in commercial, residential and industrial sectors generated 66 million additional tons of carbon.

In fact, studies show that when methane leakages are incorporated into an assessment of shale gas' CO2 emissions, natural gas could even surpass coal in terms of overall climate impact. As for tar sands and oil shales, emissions are 1.2 to 1.75 times higher than for conventional oil. No wonder the IEA's chief economist Fatih Birol remarked pessimistically that "the world is going in the wrong direction in terms of climate change."

But while the new evidence roundly puts to rest the "doomer" scenarios advocated by staunch "peak oil" pessimists, the global energy predicament is far more complicated.

Scaling the Peak

Delving deeper into the available data shows that despite being capable of triggering dangerous global warming, we are already in the throes of a global energy transition for which the age of cheap oil is well and truly over. For most serious analysts, far from signifying a world running out of oil, "peak oil" refers simply to the point when, due to a combination of below-ground geological constraints and above-ground economic factors, oil becomes increasingly and irreversibly more difficult and expensive to produce.

That point is now. US Energy Information Administration (EIA) data confirms that despite the US producing a "total oil supply" of 10 million barrels per day, up by 2.1 mbd since January 2005, world crude oil production and lease condensate - conventional production - remains on the largely flat, undulating plateau it has been on since it stopped rising that very year at 74 million barrels per day (mbd). According to John Hofmeister, former president of Shell Oil, "flat production for the most part" over the last decade has dovetailed with annual decline rates for existing fields of about "4 to 5 million bpd." Combined with "constant growing demand" - particularly from China and emerging markets - he argues, this will underpin higher oil prices for the foreseeable future.

The IEA's "World Energy Outlook" actually corroborates this picture - but the devil is in the largely overlooked details. Firstly, the main reason US oil supply will overtake Saudi Arabia and Russia is because Saudi and Russian output is projected to decline, not rise as previously assumed. So while US output creeps up from 10 to 11 mbd in 2025, post-peak Saudi output will fall to 10.6 mbd and Russia to 9.5 mbd.

Secondly, the report's projected increase in "oil production" from 84 mbd in 2011 to 97 mbd in 2035 comes not from conventional oil, but "entirely from natural gas liquids and unconventional sources" (and half of this from unconventional gas including shale) - with conventional crude oil output (excluding light tight oil) fluctuating between 65 mbd and 69 mbd, never quite reaching the historic peak of 70 mbd in 2008 and falling by 3 mbd sometime after 2012. The IEA also does not forecast a return to the cheap oil heyday of the pre-2000 era, but rather a long-term price rise to about $125 per barrel by 2035.

Thirdly, oil prices would be much higher if not for the fact that governments are heavily subsidizing fossil fuels. The WEO revealed that fossil fuel subsidies increased 30 percent to $523 billion in 2011, masking the threat of high prices.

Therefore, world conventional oil production is already on a fluctuating plateau, and we are now increasingly dependent on more expensive unconventional sources. The age of cheap oil abundance is over.

Fudging the Figures

But there are further reasons for concern. For how reliable is the IEA's data? In a series of investigations for the The Guardian and Le Monde, Lionel Badal exposed in 2009 how key data was deliberately fudged at the IEA under US pressure to artificially inflate official reserve figures. Not only that, but Badal later discovered that as early as 1998, extensive IEA data exploding assumptions of "sustained economic growth and low unemployment," had been systematically suppressed for political reasons, according to several whistleblowers.

With the IEA's research under such intense US political scrutiny and interference for 12 years, its findings should perhaps not always be taken at face value.

The same goes, even more so, for Maugeri's celebrated Harvard report. By any meaningful standard, this was hardly an independent analysis of oil industry data. Funded by two oil majors - Eni and British Petroleum (BP) - the report was not peer-reviewed and contained a litany of elementary errors. So egregious are these errors that Dr. Roger Bentley, an expert at the UK Energy Research Centre, told ex-BBC financial journalist David Strahan: "Mr Maugeri’s report misrepresents the decline rates established by major studies; it contains glaring mathematical errors. . . . I am astonished Harvard published it."

What the Scientists Say

In contrast to the blaring media attention generated by Maugeri's report, three peer-reviewed studies published in reputable science journals from January through to June this year offered a less than jubilant perspective. A paper published in Nature by Sir David King, the UK's former chief government scientist, found that despite reported increases in oil reserves, tar sands, natural gas and shale gas production via fracking, depletion of the world’s existing fields is still running at 4.5 percent to 6.7 percent per year. They firmly dismissed notions that a shale gas boom would avert an energy crisis, noting that production at shale gas wells drops by as much as 60 to 90 percent in the first year of operation. The paper received little, if any, media fanfare.

In March, Sir King's team at Oxford University's Smith School of Enterprise & the Environment published another peer-reviewed paper in Energy Policy, concluding that the industry had overstated world oil reserves by about a third. Estimates should be downgraded from 1150-1350 billion barrels to 850-900 billion barrels. As a consequence, the authors argued: "While there is certainly vast amounts of fossil fuel resources left in the ground, the volume of oil that can be commercially exploited at prices the global economy has become accustomed to is limited and will soon decline." The study was largely blacked out in the media - bar a solitary report in theTelegraph, to its credit.

In June - the same month as Maugeri's deeply flawed analysis - Energy published an extensive analysis of oil industry data by US financial risk analyst Gail Tverberg, who found that since 2005, "world [conventional] oil supply has not increased," that this was "a primary cause of the 2008-2009 recession" and that the "expected impact of reduced oil supply" will mean the "financial crisis may eventually worsen." But all the media attention was on the oilman's oil-funded report - Tverberg's peer-reviewed study in a reputable science journal, with its somewhat darker message, was ignored.

What Happens When Shale Boom Goes Boom?

These scientific studies are not the only indications that something is deeply wrong with the IEA's assessment of prospects for shale gas production and accompanying economic prosperity.

Indeed, Business Insider reports that far from being profitable, the shale gas industry is facing huge financial hurdles. "The economics of fracking are horrid," observes US financial journalist Wolf Richter. "Production falls off a cliff from day one and continues for a year or so until it levels out at about 10 per cent of initial production." The result is that "drilling is destroying capital at an astonishing rate, and drillers are left with a mountain of debt just when decline rates are starting to wreak their havoc. To keep the decline rates from mucking up income statements, companies had to drill more and more, with new wells making up for the declining production of old wells. Alas, the scheme hit a wall, namely reality."

Just four months ago, Exxon's CEO, Rex Tillerson, complained that the lower prices due to the US natural gas glut, although reducing energy costs for consumers, were depressing prices and, thus, dramatically decreasing profits. This problem is compounded primarily by the swiftly plummeting production rates at shale wells, which start high but fall fast. Although in shareholder and annual meetings, Exxon had officially insisted it was not losing money on gas, Tillerson candidly told a meeting at the Council on Foreign Relations: "We are all losing our shirts today. We're making no money. It's all in the red."

The oil industry has actively and deliberately attempted to obscure the challenges facing shale gas production. A seminal New York Times investigation last year found that despite a public stance of extreme optimism, the US oil industry is "privately skeptical of shale gas." According to the Times, "the gas may not be as easy and cheap to extract from shale formations deep underground as the companies are saying, according to hundreds of industry e-mails and internal documents and an analysis of data from thousands of wells." The emails revealed industry executives, lawyers, state geologists and market analysts voicing "skepticism about lofty forecasts" and questioning "whether companies are intentionally, and even illegally, overstating the productivity of their wells and the size of their reserves." Though corroborated by independent studies, a year later such revelations have been largely ignored by journalists and policymakers.

But we ignore them at our peril. According to Arthur Berman, a 32-year veteran petroleum geologist who worked with Amoco (prior to its merger with BP), "the decline rates" for shale gas reserves are "are incredibly high." Citing the Eagleford shale - the "mother of all shale oil plays," he points out that the "annual decline rate is higher than 42 percent." Just to keep production flat, they will have to drill "almost 1000 wells in the Eagleford shale, every year. . . . Just for one play, we're talking about $10 or $12 billion a year just to replace supply. I add all these things up, and it starts to approach the amount of money needed to bail out the banking industry. Where is that money going to come from?"

Chesapeake Energy recently found itself in exactly this situation, forcing it to sell assets to meet its obligations. "Staggering under high debt," reported the Washington Post, Chesapeake said "it would sell $6.9 billion of gas fields and pipelines - another step in shrinking the company whose brash chief executive had made it a leader in the country’s shale gas revolution." The sale was forced by a "combination of low natural gas prices and excessive borrowing."

The worst-case scenario is that several large oil companies find themselves facing financial distress simultaneously. If that happens, according to Berman, "you may have a couple of big bankruptcies or takeovers, and everybody pulls back, all the money evaporates, all the capital goes away. That's the worst-case scenario." To make matters worse, Berman has shown conclusively that the industry exaggerated EURs (Estimated Ultimate Recovery) of shale wells using flawed industry models that, in turn, have fed into the IEA's future projections. Berman is not alone - writing in Petroleum Review, US energy consultants Ruud Weijermars and Crispian McCredie argued there remains strong "basis for reasonable doubts about the reliability and durability of US shale gas reserves," measures of which have been "inflated" under new Security & Exchange Commission rules.

The eventual consequences of the current gas glut, in other words, are more than likely to be an unsustainable shale bubble that collapses under its own weight, precipitating a supply collapse and price spike. Rather than fueling prosperity, the shale revolution will instead boost a temporary recovery masking deeper, structural instabilities. Inevitably, those instabilities will collide, leaving us with an even bigger financial mess, on a faster trajectory toward costly environmental destruction.

So when is crunch time? According to a new report from the New Economics Foundation out last month, the arrival of 'economic peak oil' - when the costs of supply "exceeds the price economies can pay without significantly disrupting economic activity" - will be around 2014-15.  more

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